Piedmont NWR is primarily an upland forest dominated by loblolly pine on the ridges with hardwoods found along the creek bottoms and in scattered upland coves. Clear streams and beaver ponds provide ideal wetland habitat for waterfowl and other wetland dependent species. Today the forest and native wildlife populations have been restored from what was originally abandoned farm land. The refuge serves as a model of forest ecosystem management for wildlife. The red-cockaded woodpecker, a native bird of the southern US, is an endangered species because the old growth pine forests it requires for nesting and roosting have been logged throughout most of its range. The refuge currently has 35 active clans (family groups). Prescribed burning and thinning are two forest management practices used to provide habitat for the red-cockaded woodpecker. Many migratory bird species, white-tailed deer, wild turkey, and other native wildlife benefit from these management practices. The diversity of habitats provides a haven for nearly 200 species of birds and 50 species of mammals.
From I-75, 30 miles north of Macon, take exit 186 Juliette Road. Drive 18 miles east from the interstate to the refuge. Or from Hwy 11 between Gray and Monticello, take Juliette Road west 3 miles to the refuge office and visitor center.