BLOWING WIND CAVE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE
Sauta Cave NWR (known as Blowing Wind Cave NWR until 1999) is a 264 acre Refuge purchased in 1978 to provide protection for the federally endangered gray and Indiana bat and their critical habitat. The cave provides a summer roosting site for about 200,000 - 300,000 gray bats and a winter hibernaculum for both the gray and Indiana bats. There are two entrances into the cave on the Refuge but they are closed to the public.
As is the case with many large caves, rare and unique species occur in Sauta Cave. As a result, the Alabama Natural Heritage Program ranks the cave's biodiversity as a site of very high significance. Surprisingly, the cave is not a pristine one as it was used as a saltpeter mine during the Civil War, a nightclub during the 1920's, and a fallout shelter during the 1960's.
In addition to the rare fauna within the cave, the federally endangered Price's potato bean occurs on the Refuge. All 264 acres of habitat outside of the cave is predominately hardwood forest.
Rare and unique species occur in Sauta Cave. The Alabama Natural Heritage Program (ANHP) listed the biodiviersity rank of the cave as B2, a site of very high significance. In addition to gray and Indiana bats, many other bat species are present. Cave Salamanders, unique invertebrates, and other rare animals inhabit the cave. Outside the cave, the Refuge is forested with a mixed oak-hickory forest type and the usual complement of species that occur in this habitat type such as squirrels, birds, and deer are abundant. A few federally endangered plants also occur on the refuge in isolated places.
As mentioned earlier, Sauta Cave is not a pristine one. As early as 1784, cave soil was being mined by a Cherokee to make saltpeter, an ingredient in black powder. The mining continued on and off from the War of 1812 through the Civil War to World War I. Examples of disturbances at or inside the cave historically, due to saltpeter creation include mines, a wooden railroad, and large iron kettles. Portions of the railroad and the mining tunnels, now called The Catacombs, still exist. A building near the cave was also used as a fishing store and nightclub from 1919 to 1956. A dance area was placed adjacent to the lower entrance to take advantage of the cool wind exiting the cave. The cave was prepared as a fallout shelter by a local National Guard unit in 1962. The owner prior to acquisition by the Service planned to commercialize the cave by having tourists walk and boat through and learn its history.
In 1978, the Service acquired this property for the protection of the endangered Indiana and gray bats. Management over the years has included restricting access to the cave during critical periods in order to minimize disturbance to roosting bats.